Gambaro, Griselda (Argentine playwright, novelist, b. in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1928-____),
“Antígona Furiosa,” a __-minute political drama in English, translated by Marguerite Feitlowitz from the Spanish original, set in Argentina, in the 1970s,
© 1992 by Marguerite Feitlowitz;
• in Griselda Gambaro’s Information for Foreigners: Three Plays, edited, translated, and with an introduction by Marguerite Feitlowitz, with an afterword by Diana Taylor (Evanston, Illinois, U.S.A.: Northwestern University Press, 1992), ISBN 0810110083, ISBN 0810110334, LCCN 91033215, 175 pp., containing translations of Las paredes, Información para extranjeros, and Antigona Furiosa;
• script/rights available from source listed in Feitlowitz anthology.
• Cited in Play Index, 1988-1992: An Index to 4,397 Plays, edited by Juliette Yaakov (____-____) and John Greenfieldt (____-____) (New York: The H. W. Wilson Company, 1993), ISSN 0554-3037, LCCN 64-1054, 542 pp.
_____ (m), _____; _____ (m), _____; Antígona (f), _____.
“‘Antígona Furiosa’ retells the classic story of ‘Antigone,’ the story of a princess wanting to bury her brother despite the law’s refusal to let her do so. This retelling is placed in terms of Argentinean history, where thousands of women wanted only to know where their children were. Known as the Mothers of the Disappeared, these women banded together to speak out against a government who had kidnapped, held, tortured and even killed these women's spouses and children. The parallel between Argentinean history and the story of Antigone helps give understanding to a classic play that may not seem relevant to today's times and also helps to show the struggles that have taken place in Argentinean life.”—Antigone Furiosa, http://herbergercollege.asu.edu/news/newsreleases/2002/printable/dot_antigone_110702.htm.
“Political drama [premiered in Spanish, 1986] suggested by Sophocles’ Antigone examines passibity in face of repression and popular compliance with terror.”—Yaakov and Greenfieldt, p. 141.
• This adaptation points to the missing in Argentina under a modern tyranny.
• Research could include "Gambaro's Antigona furiosa: Rewriting the Classics and Argentina's 'Dirty War,'" Perspectives on Contemporary Spanish American Theatre, edited by Frank Dauster, Bucknell Review, Fall, 1996, Vol 40:2.
• Also, research could include "Theatre & Terrorism: Griselda Gambaro's Information for Foreigners," Theatre Journal 42/2 (1990): 165-182.
• Also, research could include De Esquilo a Gambaro: teatro, mito y cultura griegos y teatro argentino, edited by Osvaldo Pellettieri (Buenos Aires : Editorial Galerna, c1997), ISBN 9505563701, LCCN 98104548, 126 pp.
• Also, research could include Antigona Furiosa (1991), a 45-minute chamber opera in one act, libretto by Jorge Liderman and Adriana Feder, based on the play by Griselda Gambaro, commissioned by Hans Werner Henze and the City of Munich, premiered at the Third Munich Biennale, with Frank Cramer, conductor, Munich, three performers (mezzosoprano, tenor, baritone), three percussionists, April 1992.
• “Griselda Gambaro plantea en esta pequeña, pero deliciosa, pieza teatral el tema de la identidad, como lo hacen la mayoría de obras teatrales que forman parte del corpus literario de Teatro por la Identidad. Pero en este caso la autora no bucea en la brutalidad del secuestro, de la apropiación o del robo físico de un ser humano. Su propuesta muestra las consecuencias de otra forma de secuestro de la personalidad: la que se basa en la negación de la identidad de una persona. Hay individuos que, desde distintas situaciones de poder, anulan a otros desde la negación de sus necesidades, de sus derechos, de su existencia peculiar simbolizada, por ejemplo, en el nombre de aquella persona. Negar El Nombre de una persona ¿es torturarla? ¿es enajenarla? ¿es matarla? Sí, quizás con mayor sutileza pero sí, es todo eso. Esto es lo que plantea la Sra Gambaro en su texto y que intentaremos trasladar a los espectadores de EL NOMBRE. [Fernando Griffell].—Teatre B C N - Obres - El nombre, Griselda Gambaro, http://www.teatrebcn.com/obres/ficha_obra.asp?id=3647, accessed October 7, 2006.
• “One of Latin America's most important and prolific writers, Griselda Gambaro has focused on the dynamics of repression, complicity, and violence--specifically, the terror of violent regimes and their devastating effects on the moral framework of society. Information for Foreigners is a drama of disappearance, an experimental work dealing with the theme of random and meaningless punishment in which the audience is led through darkened passageways to a series of nightmarish tableaux. The collection also includes The Walls and Antigona Furiosa.”—Information for Foreigners, Griselda Gambaro, http://nupress.northwestern.edu/title.cfm?ISBN=0-8101-1008-3, accessed October 7, 2006.
• "Griselda Gambaro is, without doubt, one of the most innovative and powerful writers in the world today."—[Diana Taylor, Dartmouth College, U.S.A.].—Information for Foreigners.
• "She is not only one of the major literary figures of contemporary Argentina but indeed of all Latin America." [—George Woodyard, University of Kansas, U.S.A.].—Information for Foreigners.
• ”Daughter of Italian immigrant parents, Griselda Gambaro was born in Buenos Aires. Married with two children, she is one of Argentina's foremost contemporary dramatists, although she began her writing career as a novelist. She has travelled extensively to teach and write, and was obliged to spend the years between 1977 and 1980 in Spain in political exile following the banning of one of her books in Argentina. Her theatre reveals the influence of the principal European dramatists of the 1950s, although themes are adapted to the contemporary Argentinian reality lived by Gambaro. Primary among these concerns are the existentialism that characterised the work of Camus and Sartre, and which is apparent in Gambaro's work through her portrayal of profound human solitude, anguish, and absolute lack of communication between its characters. Critics have also observed parallels between her work and Becket's in that he too presented characters condemned to perpetual loneliness. Similarities with Pinter have also been suggested, particularly in the violent cruelty in which Gambaro's characters engage, a cruelty which the protagonist of the piece is incapable of comprehending. It is of note, however, that although many of these elements lead to an association of her work with that of European authors, the denouncement of socio-political realities and practices in fact makes her drama closer to moral theatre than to avant-garde theatre. Clear parallels with the theatre of the absurd can also be suggested, even though Gambaro has rejected critical characterization of her plays as such. Although more recently critics have begun to address the representation of women's issues in Gambaro's work, it is of note that her early theatre was apparently devoid of concern for the widespread oppression of women perceived to characterize Latin American society. Her more contemporary productions, however, have tended to present more female characters, recognizing that it is more often the woman than the man who is the victim of the kinds of brutality and repression that are the hallmark of her work, which she herself has discussed in critical essays. Despite this lack of a specifically female or feminist focus, two of her early works in particular did explore the role and experiences of women in inter-personal relationships and lesbianism.”—Matt & Andrej Koymasky - Famous GLTB - Griselda Gambaro, http://andrejkoymasky.com/liv/fam/biog1/gamb2.html, accessed October 7, 2006.
• “Griselda Gámbaro (b. 1928) is one of Latin America's major writers. Her prolific work—twenty-eight plays, ten novels, many short stories, and children's books—is the subject of extensive dramatic and literary criticism in this country and abroad. Her plays appear in numerous anthologies and are regularly produced throughout Latin America and in much of Europe. All of her plays have been produced and published in Argentina from El desatino (The Blunder), which opened in 1965 at the legendary Instituto di Tella, known in the sixties for its avant-garde arts programs, up to her most recent, a dramatic monologue adapted from Chekhov's short story ‘The Darling,’ which opened in Buenos Aires on August 8, 2003. Many of her plays have been translated into English and several have been published in the U.S., yet few have been produced here. Argentina has a tradition of novelists and poets who are women, going back to the nineteenth century, but only a few women write plays. Several years ago Gámbaro told me, ‘Theatre writing is more direct than prose. I believe that all acts of writing are impudent, shameless, but drama especially, because you know that you are going to be on the stage through the actors. That’s why theatre is more aggressive. It shows more. It is immodest.’ Gámbaro's work is deeply rooted in Argentina, where political events have often influenced the content of the plays as well as their structure and their expression. All of her plays are strong and penetrating abstract commentaries on passivity in the face of oppression and destruction, themes that have played out in her country since the mid-nineteenth century. Her plays deal ‘aggressively’ and ‘immodestly’ with themes of violence and power. Her style, often mistakenly identified as absurdist, is in fact an outgrowth of an Argentine theatre genre known as el grotesco . . . .”—Project MUSE, http://muse.jhu.edu/cgi-bin/access.cgi?uri=/journals/performing_arts_journal/v026/26.1pottlitzer.html, accessed October 7, 2006.
• Griselda Gambaro resides in a suburban district of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
adaptation, Antigone, “Dirty War” in Argentina (1976-1983), dominance, missing in Argentina, Mothers of the Disappeared, oppression, politics, society, Sophocles (Greek dramatist, 495?-406), subversive allegory, terror, violence.